COVID-19: Transmission, Evolution and Prevention

Routes of transmission:

The spreading characteristics of COVID-19 are based on the assumption that they are similar to SARS-CoV 2003 outbreak. The transmission of COVID-19 is considered to mainly occur through respiratory droplets that are generated by coughing and sneezing. If any person comes in contact with surfaces contaminated by the virus they will get affected. The modes of transmission for COVID-19 are expected to be droplets and contact.

spike protein

Respiratory viruses are mostly transmitted by sneezing and coughing. initially, Chinese authorities have declined the possibility of human-to-human transmission. But on the other hand, Chinese scientists have warned that some infected people acting like a virus carrier may transmit the virus to others without experiencing any symptoms. In Germany, a study has been published documenting asymptomatic transmission but has been criticized as inaccurate. Just think about the possibility that If the virus is spreading unintentionally by the patients with no symptoms at all then that is the worst-case scenario to deal with the virus. Occurring through respiratory droplets that generates when an infected person coughs or sneezes this deadly virus spreads from person to person, similar to other respiratory diseases like influenza spreads. There’s a lot more to discover and learn about the transmission frequency and other characteristics associated with COVID-19.

Incubation and infectious period:

The incubation period is the time frame between the infection of the virus to an individual and the appearance of the illness causes. According to an analysis of the data that is available about SARS-CoV-2 cases advocates that, similar to previous SARS-CoV, patients will not get infected until the outset of symptoms. The average time from symptoms visibility to clinical recovery is approximately 2 weeks for mild cases and 3-6 weeks for severe cases. Some case reports suggest contagion during the asymptomatic period from an infected patient to others. Additional research is required to figure out the actual contingency and influence of asymptomatic transmission. Most individuals are considered infectious when they have symptoms. The severity of symptoms reflects the infection stage and how infectious an individual is. due to a prolonged incubation period of two weeks, COVID-19 notably poses several diagnostic challenges like an extended interval of viral shedding about approximately 5 days before the onset of symptoms; the interval of asymptomatic shedding is variable and different based on the infection in the respiratory system at the anatomic level.

Survival in the environment:

With limited data available about SARS-CoV-2, majorly studies conducted are based on previous human coronaviruses i.e. SARS and MERS coronavirus. Human coronaviruses can easily survive on inorganic objects and remain feasible at temperatures of 22-25°C for up to 5 days. The survival of the virus is also dependent on the type of surface. An experimental study using a COVID-19 strain reported feasibility on copper for up to 8 hours, for 72 hours on plastic and about 48 hours on stainless steel. Widespread environmental contamination may occur following AGP (Aerosol generating procedure). This virus is highly contagious and can survive easily in our environment. As a result of that, it has spread all over the world

spike protein

How the virus attacks and how can it be prevented:

Researchers are globally battling to develop a potential vaccine to counteract the serious effects of novel coronavirus, called COVID-19. A group of scientists has discovered a key protein that the COVID-19 virus uses to attack human cells. It can be the key to open the door to developing a vaccine.

Previous studies exposed that coronaviruses invade cells through “spike proteins”. But these spike proteins have a different shape for a different type of coronavirus. At the University of Texas Austin, a professor of molecular biosciences named Jason McLellan, said: “discovering about the structure of the spike protein in COVID-19 can prove to be a critical finding in figuring out the way the virus target’s human cells and develop a vaccine”. Though the coronavirus uses different proteins to invade cells and replicate them. Coronavirus uses spike protein as a major surface protein to bind to a receptor. A Receptor is another protein that behaves as a doorway to enter inside a human cell. After the binding of the human cell receptor to the spike protein human cell gets fused with the viral membrane, permitting the virus genome to enter the human cells and initiate the infection. If somehow you can prevent this attachment and fusion of spike protein and receptor then you can prevent the entry of the virus in the human body.

Coronavirus is an RNA class virus responsible for one-third of infections of a common cold. Till now Seven coronaviruses had been discovered that can infect humans including SARS-CoV-2 resulting in fatal pneumonia, named COVID-19. Spike protein the major structural proteins of SARS coronavirus. Studies on COVID-19 protein show viral spike protein that binds human angiotensin-converting enzyme located on the surface of mucosal cells, resulting in the fusion of cell membranes and viral for entry. We at offer Coronavirus Spike Protein antibodies that are effective in fighting from the virus. Our extensive catalog for SARS Spike proteins, coronavirus antigens, and antibodies will help you in Choosing the best anti-SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein antibody needed for your research.